The microbiome in inflammatory bowel diseases
From pathogenesis to therapy.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has become a global disease with accelerating incidence worldwide in the 21st century while its accurate etiology remains unclear. In the past decade, gut microbiota dysbiosis has consistently been associated with IBD. Although many IBD-associated dysbiosis have not been proven to be a cause or an effect of IBD, it is often hypothesized that at least some of alteration in microbiome is protective or causative. In this article, we selectively reviewed the hypothesis supported by both association studies in human and pathogenesis studies in biological models. Specifically, we reviewed the potential protective bacterial pathways and species against IBD, as well as the potential causative bacterial pathways and species of IBD. We also reviewed the potential roles of some members of mycobiome and virome in IBD. Lastly, we covered the current status of therapeutic approaches targeting microbiome, which is a promising strategy to alleviate and cure this inflammatory disease.