Atopic disease linked with increased risk for IBD
Individuals with atopic diseases such as asthma and atopic dermatitis appeared to be at higher risk for developing inflammatory bowel disease.
“Previous genome-wide studies have shown that atopic diseases and IBD share several susceptibility genes, which are important for adaptive immune regulation and tissue response, implicating a common inflammatory cascade among the diseases,” Hyun Jung Lee, MD, PhD, of the department of medicine and liver research institute at Seoul National University School of Medicine, and colleagues wrote. “However, despite its common pathophysiology involving immune-mediated diseases, the correlation of atopic diseases with IBD has been rarely studied.”
Researchers performed a nationwide, population-based study comprising 9,923,521 patients who received a medical check-up in 2009. They explored for a potential association between the presence of any atopic disease, including atopic dermatitis (AD), allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma, and IBD.
Over a mean follow-up of 7.3 years, 1,419 patients developed Crohn’s disease, and 5,897 patients developed ulcerative colitis. Investigators found incidences (per 100,000 person-years) for CD of 3.756 in patients with AD, 2.248 in patients with AR and 2.346 in patients with asthma. The incidences among patients with UC were 11.952, 9.818 and 9.358, respectively.
Lee and colleagues found that patients with a atopic disease were at higher risk for CD (AD, adjusted HR = 2.02; 95% CI, 1.118–3.663; AR, aHR = 1.33; 95% CI, 1.149–1.529; asthma, aHR = 1.6; 95% CI, 1.149–1.529) and UC (AD, aHR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.082–2.104; AR, aHR = 1.32; 95% CI, 1.229–1.41; asthma, aHR = 1.29; 95% CI, 1.115–1.491) compared with control individuals.
Additionally, the risk for IBD increased if a patient had more atopic diseases. Patients with two atopic diseases were at increased risk for CD (aHR = 1.65; 95% CI, 1.146–2.376) and UC (aHR = 1.49; 95% CI, 1.249–1.774) than patients with just one atopic disease (aHR = 1.35; 95% CI, 1.171–1.56 and aHR = 1.3; 95% CI, 1.211–1.392).
“The presence of any atopic disease in patients increased the risk for IBD, while an increase in the number of atopic diseases progressively increased the risk for IBD,” Lee and colleagues wrote. “Patients with atopic diseases and abdominal symptoms should be closely monitored for the early detection of IBD if they have multiple atopic diseases, which may alter the disease course.”